It's very good that you are asking questions before you get a cat.
Two things I wanted to make note on first, kittens generally do not require as much time as puppies do. Owners with young pups always worry about being gone too much, specially for house training reasons, kittens typically adjust very well to the hours you are gone at work, they can be very independant creatures when they have to amuse themselves.
A lot of people who have not had any experience with cats, or only negative ones often thing they do not bond as much with their owners as dogs do, which is completely false, it all has to do with breeding, how much time you spend with them in the early beginning, keeping them indoors also helps form a stronger bond. Just treat them like you would your best friend, or a dog, and they'll be your forever side kick.
Secondly, I also hope that you keep your next cat indoors, it is much safer for them. Some people have different views on this, but if you keep your cat highly amused at home, with toys, scratching posts, tree's etc then your cat will be fine. You can even train them to walk on a harness and leash if you really wanted to give them some outdoor time.
As for your orginial questions.
1.) As far as time, spend as much time with the kitten as you can, playing, petting, sleeping with, get them used to you petting them while they eat, teach them that it's ok if you take their bowl away from them for a moment before they are done eating. You want to pet your kitten all over, get them used to touching their face, paws, belly, ears.
You can get an older cat, lord knows they need the most help adoption wise! You can look for an adult that fits your personality, and things will generally get off well, I have adopted both kittens and adults, all have had the potential to work out great, and others regaudless of age, will be set in their ways.
2.) If you have an indoors cat, cat furniture is a good idea, get as nice and complex of a cat tree as you can afford (or even build one yourself) and typically place it next to a window. There are also window beds you can get for cats which they love! The more ok places you have for a cat to scratch the smaller the problem you might ever have of the kitten scratching in the wrong place.
3.) Cat nip toys, interactive toys, danglers which you play with them with a variety of attachments at the end. Rolling balls with bells in them, and then there is good ol fuzzy mice. Just get them an assortment, leave some out one week, and then put the old ones away and put out new ones for a while, adn then keep rotating so the toys always seem new and fresh to the cat. There are of course boxes and bags, there are some very simple things that make cats happy!
3.) Training aids. This depends on how stern of an owner you are. Some people don't like cats up on the table (I don't mind). Kittens can be hard set to steal your food while your eating a meal, and you'll just have to teach them "no" and "down", keep putting them down, and away from your food, teach them the only food that is there's is whatever you put in their bowl, or what you put on the floor infront of them. If worse comes to worse, you can put the kitten behind a shut door while you finish your meal, most cats will grow out of this food craze.
Bitter Apple, and Tabacco sauce can work for things like chewing wires. You can put a little on whatever service you do not want the cat to chew.
Are you looking to adopt a cat from a shelter or rescue? Or from a breeder?