I agree with Marie, he needs his 'Safe' places!
Make the times he's out, really enjoyable for him, see if he would like to play with you, with a feather cat wand toy, or some other toy.
I have fluffy mice toys that I can refill with catnip, which my cats love to pounce on, and cart around the house!
There are small whiffle type balls, that are usually sold in the golf section, as practice balls, that again, my cats love to play with, and because they're light, and have holes in them, the cats can also carry these around.
You want to spark his curiosity in a safe, and secure way, it might take a while for him to open up, but if you're patient, you'll be rewarded!
Best of luck!
"A Cat must have three different names:
An everyday family name; A particular name;
And the name but the Cat Himself Knows, and will never confess." T.S. Eliot
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