Well, I'm not Jewish (yet), but I'll answer your questions as best as I can. Going to synagogue isn't really the most important aspect of most Jewish holidays, and definitely not for Passover (Pesach in Hebrew).
Passover commemorates the end of the Isrealites' slavery in Egypt, and their fleeing from Pharaoh, otherwise known as Exodus. There are very specific rules regarding what may be eaten during Passover. No leavened products or anything made from wheat, rye, barley, oats and spelt may be eaten all week and some people also avoid rice, corn, peanuts, and beans. Very observant Jews have separate dishes and pots that they use only for Passover.
The highlight of Passover is the seder, the evening meal held on the first two nights. Again, there are rules about what must be eaten at the seder, and most people have a special seder plate for the ritual foods. Everyone drinks four glasses of wine (or grape juice) and eats matzah, the only type of grain product allowed all week. Some people avoid eating lamb, the sacrificial animal of Passover, as a reminder that the Temple stands no longer and others do eat lamb to remind them that the Temple used to stand and will again some day.
Personally, I am having a very low-key Passover this year. I hosted a seder last year, but I had my wisdom teeth out last week and just can't manage this year. For the second seder I'll be making Sephardic (Jews from the Mediterranean) food, lamb meatballs in tomato sauce and spiced vegetables and a special maztah ball dessert. I'll pull out the seder plate and kiddush cup and polish the good silverware, but I don't get rid of all the grain and I don't use different dishes.
Whew, that was long! I'm happy to answer any questions you have. In the meantime, http://www.jewfaq.org/holidaya.htm
is a great place to go for basic info, though it is from an Orthodox perspective.